Ecology- and health-promoting solutions in civil engineering with the relatively low cost of production.
mgr inż. Wojciech Andrzejuk, dr hab inż. Danuta Barnat-Hunek, dr inż. Bartosz Zegardło.
IMPACT DESCRIPTION TITLE
One of the major problems of modern production and industrial consumption is rational waste management, including ceramic materials. Research results confirmed on ceramic mixture show that aggregates obtained from ceramic waste are of full value and after appropriate adjustment may replace natural aggregates. These experiments indicate a possibility to additionally apply these aggregates in bituminous composites. Certyd and biochar are building materials which may be applied in a similar fashion.
Based on the above, research was carried out on the management of unwanted waste and/or the reduction of the quantity of natural aggregates extracted, the promotion of recycling consisting in the re-use of waste materials in order to create new products or ecology- and health-promoting solutions in civil engineering with the relatively low cost of production.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAJOR RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS
Conducted research on the application of recycled ceramic aggregates for the production of mineral-asphalt mixtures (MAM) revealed that ceramics may be successfully applied in MAM used as a wearing course based on dolomite aggregate. The mixture with 20 and 30% addition of waste ceramic aggregate used as a partial substitute for the dolomite aggregate commonly applied in MAM meets the WT-2 2014 requirements [R1].
The study of physical properties of recycled ceramic aggregates applied in MAM shows that fragmented waste ceramic aggregate meets Polish technical requirements regarding the shape of the aggregate grains, has sufficient resistance to cyclical freezing and thawing as well as resistance to grinding. Moreover, studied aggregates and asphalts were observed to have insufficient adhesion of asphalt to aggregates. Therefore, adhesives ought to be applied to improve the adhesion of asphalt to aggregates [R2].
Research on wettability of asphalt concrete with recycled ceramic aggregates revealed that the chemical composition of ceramic aggregates has a considerable impact on the adhesion of asphalt to the aggregate surface due to the chemical affinity. However, this parameter is not critical. Waste ceramic aggregate, despite its acidic pH value resulting from its elevated silica content, exhibits good adhesive properties, related to the electron structure of asphalt [R3].
The paper [R4] describes the possibilities of using car side windows in cementitious composites. The solutions presented have a positive impact on the technical properties of cementitious composites. The aim of the production of concrete with recycled glass aggregate would be to produce composites with high technical values but also to dispose of waste which is currently not used effectively.
In another conducted research study [R5], the effect of the water with micro-nano bubbles (MNB) of gas on the physical and mechanical properties of lime-cement mortars was examined. Tests revealed that MNB water influenced the cement properties, acceleration of the hydration reaction and the early hardening process. The application of MNB water is technologically possible in almost all cases and does not require complicated procedures compared with other nano-additives applied in civil engineering.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROLE OF THE ENTITY IN THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY OUTCOMES
Research on ecology- and health-promoting solutions in civil engineering was conducted in the Department of Civil Engineering of the Faculty of Technical Sciences at Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska by a team composed of: mgr inż. W. Andrzejuk, dr hab. inż. D. Barnat-Hunek, dr inż. B. Zegardło. Research tasks conducted led to the collaboration with civil engineering institutions and entrepreneurs under which pioneer technologies were developed with an impact on the economy and natural environment protection. They contribute to the management of unwanted waste, which is directly related to the issues of ecology and sustainable development in civil engineering. Moreover, three patent applications were filed, including two of them which were covered with patent protection for inventions.
OPIS BIBLIOGRAFICZNY i STRESZCZENIE OSIĄGNIĘĆ NAUKOWYCH
[R1] W. Andrzejuk, D. Barnat-Hunek, R. Siddique, B. Zegardło, G. Łagód – “Application of Recycled Ceramic Aggregates for the Production of Mineral-Asphalt Mixtures”. Materials, 2018, 11, 658.
The article describes the manner of designing and manufacturing the innovative mineral-asphalt mixtures in which recycled waste aggregates from sanitary ceramics are used. These mixtures were designed to be applied in the wearing course of the asphalt surface.
[R2] W. Andrzejuk, D. Barnat-Hunek, J. Góra – “Physical Properties of Mineral and Recycled Aggregates Used to Mineral-Asphalt Mixtures”, Materials 3437 (12) 2019.
The article presents research results and examines the possibilities of using recycled aggregates from fragmented waste ceramic materials in mineral-asphalt mixtures. Moreover, the mineral composition as well as the physical and mechanical properties were analysed for natural aggregates such as dolomite, granodiorite and waste ceramic aggregates.
[R3] W. Andrzejuk, A. Szewczak, S. Fic, G. Łagód – “Wettability of Asphalt Concrete with Natural and Recycled Aggregates from Sanitary Ceramics”, Materials 3799 (13) 2020.
Following the current trend of searching for alternative methods of modifying the existing building composites such as MAM, materials from recycled concrete and ceramics are increasingly used. Ceramic building material added to MAM as an aggregate may considerably influence the properties of the aggregate, including the wettability, porosity, asphalt adhesion, and consequently the mixture durability.
[R4] M. Szeląg, B. Zegardło, W. Andrzejuk – “The Use of Fragmented, Worn-Out Car Side Windows as an Aggregate for Cementitious Composites”; Materials 1467 (12) 2019.
The article describes a new model of concrete production which contains glass cullet. Worn-out car side windows were used to produce recycled glass aggregate whose properties were examined. Recycled glass aggregate was applied in concrete as a 50% and 100% mass substitute of the traditional aggregate. Basic tests of fresh concrete mix and hardened concrete were carried out.
[R5] M. Grzegorczyk-Frańczak, D. Barnat-Hunek, W. Andrzejuk, J. Zaburko, M. Zalewska, G. Łagód – “Physical Properties and Durability of Lime-Cement Mortars Prepared with Water Containing Micro-Nano Bubbles of Various Gases”; Materials 1902 (14) 2021.
The paper presents experimental tests of the effect of water with micro-nano bubbles of various gases on the physico-mechanical properties of lime-cement mortars.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESEARCH ACTIVITY IMPACT, INCLUDING THE ACTIVITY WHOSE OUTCOMES ARE THE SUBJECT OF COMMERCIALISATION, WITH AN INDICATION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN RESEARCH ACTIVITY AND THIS IMPACT AS WELL AS THE SOCIAL GROUP BENEFITTING FROM THIS IMPACT AND THE GREATEST RESEARCH ACTIVITY IMPACT AREA
Under the collaboration with the road construction company, Przedsiębiorstwo Robót Drogowych S.A in Biała Podlaska, research was conducted on the use of recycled aggregates from fragmented waste ceramic materials in building materials such as mineral-asphalt mixtures. The research results have significantly influenced the changes occurring in the economy and ecology, they have an impact on the rationalisation of waste management, the quantity of natural aggregates extracted and the promotion of recycling consisting in the re-use of waste materials in order to create new products. The cooperation resulted in obtaining two invention patents for the mineral-asphalt mixture containing aggregates from fragmented worn-out car side windows (P.425766) and the mineral-asphalt mixture containing aggregates from fragmented worn-out electrical insulators (P.427337). This intellectual property confirms the innovative and ecology-promoting nature of conducted research [S1].
The collaboration with Meteni Consulting Sp. z o.o. Sp. k. also concerned analysing the possibilities of the use of recycled aggregates from fragmented waste ceramic materials for mineral-asphalt mixtures used for the construction of road surfaces. Other innovations and know-how have a great commercialisation potential. This is evidenced by three patent applications, including two protected applications. The tested mineral-asphalt mixtures based on recycled ceramic aggregates are of an ecological and economic value. They are also crucial for the green transformation in enterprise operation in the economy [S2].
The activities carried out jointly with the laboratory research centre, Centrum Badań Laboratoryjnych „CEBEL” Sp. z o.o. in Lublin, led to the preparation of the compositions of mineral-asphalt mixtures containing waste recycled aggregates, namely aggregates from waste sanitary ceramics, worn-out car side windows and worn-out electrical insulators. The mixtures were designed for road surfaces, for the wearing course of the traffic category KR1-2, and met the requirements for asphalt concrete in accordance with WT-2 2014 (Technical Requirements, Mineral-asphalt mixtures). The outcomes of the conducted work had an impact on rational waste management, natural aggregate extraction and the recycling process related to the use of waste materials for the production of new building materials [S3].
The collaboration with Przedsiębiorstwo Wielobranżowe „BUDOMEX” Sp. z o.o. in Biała Podlaska focused on the use of worn-out recycled car side windows in cement concretes and on the development of lime-cement mortars modified with nanobubbles with carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. The research results confirmed the considerable improvement of the properties of analysed cement concretes and construction mortars. As a result, unconventional compositions of concrete mix and modified lime-cement mortar were developed. The study has significantly influenced the use of innovative, ecology- and health-promoting technologies, which thus relates to sustainable development in civil engineering [S4].
SZCZEGÓŁOWA CHARAKTERYSTYKA DOWODÓW WPŁYWU DZIAŁALNOŚCI NAUKOWEJ
[S1] Testimonial from Przedsiębiorstwo Robót Drogowych S.A. in Biała Podlaska
The testimonial confirms the research collaboration between Przedsiębiorstwo Robót Drogowych S.A. in Biała Podlaska and the Department of Civil Engineering at Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska. The results obtained under this collaboration considerably affected the economy and ecology. The collaboration concerned the use of recycled aggregates from fragmented waste ceramic materials for mineral-asphalt mixtures used for the construction of road surfaces.
[S2] Testimonial from Meteni Consulting Sp. z o.o. Sp. k.
The testimonial confirms the collaboration between Meteni Consulting Sp. z o.o. Sp. k. and the Department of Civil Engineering at Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska. The collaboration concerned the use of recycled ceramic aggregates in mineral-asphalt mixtures. The commercialisation potential of the analysed innovations was emphasised together with their ecological and economic value concerning the life of enterprises in the circular economy.
[S3] Testimonial from Centrum Badań Laboratoryjnych “CEBEL” Sp. z o.o. in Lublin
The testimonial confirms the collaboration between Centrum Badań Laboratoryjnych “CEBEL” Sp. z o.o. in Lublin and the Department of Civil Engineering at Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska. Research affected rational waste management, the quantity of natural aggregates extracted and recycling promotion. The tangible effects of joint actions included the development of the composition of three mineral-asphalt mixtures containing various waste recycled aggregates.
[S4] Testimonial from Przedsiębiorstwo Wielobranżowe „BUDOMEX” Sp. z o.o. in Biała Podlaska
The testimonial confirms the collaboration between Przedsiębiorstwo Wielobranżowe „BUDOMEX” Sp. z o.o. in Biała Podlaska and the Department of Civil Engineering at Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska. Research concerned the use of worn-out waste car side windows in cement concretes and the development of lime-cement mortars modified with nanobubbles with CO2, O2 and O3. As a result, innovative, ecology- and health-promoting technologies in the field of waste management, including the recycling process, were developed.
INFORMATION WHETHER THE IMPACT IS THE RESULT OF INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES, AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES FOR THE CREATION OF THIS IMPACT
Research conducted in the Department of Civil Engineering at Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska was of an innovative, ecology- and health-promoting nature. The issues related to unwanted waste management, the recycling process and the use of water with nanobubbles of gases in the production of construction mortars directly affect the economy, ecology and may influence human health.
Along with climatic changes and their impact on social awareness and along with the disappearance of sources of natural aggregates and their depleting resources, a considerable growth of their prices is predicted. Therefore, the desire to obtain aggregates from unconventional sources seems natural and will be supported by economic, ecological and sustainable policy factors. The technologies developed in the Department of Civil Engineering are a method of waste management, which may be a source of negative impact on the natural environment, including the climate.
Damp walls and the resulting fungi and mould are one of the essential problems in construction. The literature indicates that fungi present in the life and work environments may negatively affect human health. That is why following all kinds of recommendations on the elimination of fungi from buildings is extremely important. The use of water with nanobubbles, developed by the Department of Civil Engineering, may effectively reduce the formation of bacteria and mould in building materials, and, due to its nano-properties, an appropriate dosing of ingredients may effectively improve their physico-mechanical properties, tightness, water absorption, compressive and tensile strength as well as resistance to the negative influence of weather conditions.